This product is the dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis chinensis Franch., Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao, or Coptis teeta Wall. of Coptis yunnanensis (Yunlian). Because of its yellow rhizome, internodes often form intermittent nodular ridges, shaped like lianzhu, hence the name Huanglian. Huanglian has the most bitter taste and is shaped like chicken feet. It is mainly produced in Sichuan, so it is also known as Weilian, Chicken Feet and Chuanlian. Triangle Yehuang is mainly produced in Hongya and Emei, Sichuan, so it is also known as Yalian and Emei. Yunnan Huanglian is named for its main production in Yunnan, referred to as Yunlian for short.
【Plant Morphological Identification】
1. Coptis: perennial herb, 15-15 cm high. Rhizome yellow, often branched, densely densely fibrous. Ye Jisheng, petiole 5 to 12 cm long, glabrous, leaves nearly leathery, ovate triangular, up to 10 cm wide, palmately trilobate, central lobate ovate rhombic, 3 to 8 cm long, 2 to 4 cm wide, The tip is sharp and sharp, with a thin shank 8 to 18 mm long, 3 to 5 pairs of pinnate deep fissures, the deep lobes are 2 to 6 mm apart from each other, the edges are sharply serrated, the lateral full lobes are obliquely oval, shorter than the central full lobes, The lobes are unequal, the veins on both sides are raised, and only the surface is pubescent along the veins. 1 to 2 scapes, 3 to 8 flowers in dichotomous or multi-branch cymes; bracts lanceolate, pinnately split; sepals 5, yellow-green, oblong oval, 9-92.5 mm long , 2 to 3 mm wide; petals linear or linear lanceolate, 5 to 6.5 mm long, tapered at the top, with honey groove in the center; stamens about 20, anthers about 1 mm long, filaments 2 to 5 mm long, carpel 8-12 pieces, free, short-handled, style slightly curved outward. Chia fruit is 6-8 mm long, with a thin stalk 6-8 mm long; 7-8 seeds, long oval, about 2 mm long, brown. Flowering from February to March, fruiting from April to June.
2. The distinguishing characteristics of Coptis chinensis and Coptis chinensis: The rhizomes are not branched or few branched, the internodes are obvious, and the stolons run horizontally. Leaf blade ovate, up to 15 cm wide, three complete lobes, central full lobes triangular ovate, 3 to 12 cm long, 3 to 10 cm wide, 4 to 6 pairs of pinnate deep fissures, deep lobes adjoining each other more or less; lateral full Lobe obliquely ovate triangle. The petal length is 3 to 6 mm; the stamen is only about 1/2 of the petal length. Flowering from March to April, fruiting from April to June.
3. Yunnan Coptis is different from the above two characteristics: the rhizome is smaller and less branched. The leaves are nearly leathery, ovate triangles, 5-9 cm wide, with three complete lobes, central full lobes ovate rhombuses, 3-6 cm long, 3-6 pairs of pinnate deep fissures, deep lobes up to 1.5 cm apart. Bracts elliptical; petals spatulate to ovate spatulate, apex rounded.
【Identification of medicinal properties】
1. Wei Lian: multi-agglomerated clusters, often curved, shaped like "chicken claws", single-root rhizomes 3 to 6 cm long, 3 to 8 mm in diameter. The surface is gray-yellow or yellow-brown, rough, with irregular nodular ridges, fibrous roots and fibrous root residues, and some internodal surfaces are smooth like stalks, which is called "crossing bridges". There are mostly brown scale leaves on the upper part, and residual stems or petioles are often left on the top. Hard quality, irregular cross-section, orange-red or dark brown in the skin, bright yellow or orange-yellow in the wood, arranged in a radial pattern, the marrow is sometimes hollow. Slight gas, bitter taste.
2. Yalian: mostly single branch, slightly cylindrical, slightly curved, shaped like "old silkworm", 4-8 cm long, 5-10 mm in diameter. The "crossing bridge" is longer. There are a few stumps at the top.
3. Yunlian: mostly single branch, curved hook-shaped, relatively small, shaped like a "scorpion tail", 2 to 5 cm long and 2 to 4 mm in diameter. There is "crossing the bridge". The fracture surface is relatively flat, yellow-brown.