Choose oily bamboo mixed woodland with deep soil, loose and fertile soil, rich in humus, strong drainage, and good permeability. The soil is slightly acidic to neutral, and the terrain is suitable for gentle slopes with slant light irradiation of no more than 30 degrees in the morning and evening. Avoid continuous cropping.
The planting of Coptis chinensis requires the process of seed selection, seedling raising and transplanting. Generally, the seedlings are transplanted after 2 years, and can be transplanted in spring, summer and autumn. In the first 3 years after transplanting, seedlings should be replenished and weeded in time. Coptis chinensis transplanted 3 to 4 years, weeding 3 or 4 times a year. From the second year, except for the remaining plants, the flower moss should be removed in time. During the cultivation process, the shading degree of the shade shed should be adjusted according to the planting years and the growth requirements of the plants.
There are three periods for planting each year: the first period is from February to March after snowing, before the new leaves of Coptis chinensis grow, the survival rate after transplanting is high, and the new leaves will grow and grow new roots soon after transplanting, grow well, and fall Later, there are fewer dead seedlings, which is a better time for planting, and the masses call it "planting old leaves." The second period is from May to June. At this time, the new leaves have grown and the seedlings are large. The survival rate after planting is high, and the growth is also good. The people call it "planting seedlings". However, it is not advisable to be late in July, because the temperature in July is high, there are many dead seedlings after planting, severe denudation, and poor growth. The third period is from September to October. It will enter the frost period shortly after planting. If it takes root and is not stable, it will be frozen in winter and spring. It is susceptible to pulling seedlings by freezing and has a low survival rate. It is only planted at this time in areas with low temperature and no freezing.
Pull out the sturdy seedlings from the seedling bed before planting. When pulling seedlings, use the right index finger and thumb to pinch the small rhizomes of the seedlings, pull up, shake off the soil, put them in the left hand, put the rhizomes on the thumb side, the seedling heads should be neat, the roots should be straightened, can not be bent, 100 plants are bundled into one Put. Most of the fibrous roots have been damaged when the seedlings were pulled out, and they lost their vitality. After planting, they must regenerate new roots. If using the "through rod method" for transplanting, the fibrous roots should be longer, about 1.2~2 cm. After cutting the fibrous roots, the soil on the roots of the seedlings is washed with water. The operation is convenient during planting. The rhizomes are easily in contact with the soil to induce new roots. At the same time, the seedlings absorb moisture. The seedlings are fresh when planted, and they are easy to survive after planting. Usually the seedlings are pulled in the morning and planted in the afternoon. It is best to finish the planting on the same day; if they are not finished, they should be spread out in a damp place. Soaking the roots with an aqueous solution of 1~2:500 kg of ammonium molybdate for 2 hours can promote the rooting of the seedlings and accelerate the growth; immersing the roots with 0.5~1:500 kg of potassium permanganate for 2 hours also accelerates the rooting and growth effect.
Seedlings must be planted on a cloudy or sunny day, not on rainy days, because rainy days will step on the border, making the seedlings paste mud, not easy to survive. There are three planting methods: one is planting the back knife, the tool is a special heart-shaped small shovel with wooden handle. When planting, hold the shovel in the right hand, and use the large, food, and middle fingers to take the seedlings, take one seedling from the right hand with the left hand, hold the upper part of the seedlings with the large, food, and middle fingers, and then insert the shovel vertically into the soil, depth 4 ~6 cm, and pull 2~3 cm flat to the chest to make a small hole, insert the seedling into the hole straightly, immediately take out the small shovel, push the soil forward to cover the hole, and press the seedling with the back of the shovel. From top to bottom, retreat while planting, and then loosen the border soil and smooth out the footprints. Planting seedlings should not be too shallow. Generally, seedlings of appropriate age should allow the leaves below to enter the soil completely. The deepest depth is no more than 6 cm. It is easy to survive. The row spacing is usually 10 cm. Square planting can plant 55,000 to 60,000 plants per mu. The second is to plant a knife, that is, use a shovel to press the seedling roots into the soil. This method of planting is fast, but the survival rate is not as high as the back knife, and it is generally seldom used. The third is to plant stems. When planting, take the seedlings in one hand and press the index finger against the rhizome in the other hand, insert it into the soil, rotate the index finger slightly, pull out the finger, and then push the soil to cover the finger hole. Planting seedlings by this method is faster and the survival rate is also higher.
After planting Coptis chinensis, immediately spread a small amount of cow dung and smoked soil to call the knife edge fertilizer. Fertilizers are applied once a year in early spring and summer after harvesting and in winter from October to November. Spring and summer are mainly based on nitrogen and phosphorus and other fast-acting fertilizers. Winter fertilizers are mainly composed of cow dung and smoked soil. After applying each fertilizer, the soil should be cultivated. Cultivating soil in the first and second years is about 1cm, and in the third and fourth years is 2~3cm.
Before weeding, weeding should be carried out. One or two years after transplanting, the seedlings have large open ground and easy to grow weeds. Weeding should be done 4 to 5 times a year. The Coptis chinensis has been sealed in four or five years. Combined with topdressing, weeding should be done 3 times a year. After the seeds are harvested in May of that year, the cover should be removed to open the sun to inhibit the growth of the leaves and promote the filling of the rhizomes; the trees should be planted in the forest. Reduced from about 70% at the time of planting to 20% to 30%.
After planting, there are often dead seedlings with different degrees of release. About 10% of the seedlings die in the first, second, and third years after planting. The seedlings should be replenished in time. Generally, the seedlings should be replenished twice. The first time is in the autumn of the year. Replenish seedlings with strong seedlings of the same age, and transplanting with soil is easier to survive. The second time to replant seedlings after the second year of snowing before new leaves did not appear. In alpine regions with relatively large freezing temperatures in winter, the seedlings planted in the first autumn are often arched out of the ground. Therefore, after snowing, the seedlings that have been arched out of the ground can still be survived by checking in detail. The dead seedlings should be replanted. Afterwards, if seedlings are found to be lacking, seedlings with soil equivalent to planted seedlings should be used for transplanting, so that the growth after planting is consistent.
Due to the pre-emergence weeding, it should be combined with chemical weeding. In the current and next year of planting, weeding 4 to 5 times per year, 3 to 4 times per year in the third and fourth years, and once in the fifth year, each time in the grass When there are 2 to 3 leaves, use 250 grams of promethazine, 25 to 30 grams of simazine, and 2 sachets of rice field (made in Yongchuan) (only one of the three drugs is used), and 20 to Mix 30 kilograms of sand or phosphate fertilizer, and evenly spread it on acres of Pistacia chinensis in sunny afternoons or evenings, and cloudy days (only the net area of the cabin surface is counted), and sweep it into the ground with bamboo poles or branches. Then, observe carefully, if there is no weeds removed, manually pull out.
The top dressing should be applied once within 2~3 days after planting, with thin pig manure water or vegetable cake water, or about 1,000 kg of finely divided compost or stable manure per acre. This fertilizer is called "knife edge fertilizer", which can make the continuous seedling grow quickly after survival. From September to October of the year of planting, in the second, third, fourth, and fifth spring of May, after harvesting, and from the second, third, and fourth autumn of September to October, topdressing should be applied once for a total of 8 times. In spring top dressing, use 1000 kg of human and animal manure water and 20-30 kg of superphosphate per mu, mix well with fine soil or fine compost, and spread the fertilizer attached to the leaves with thin bamboo branches after application. In autumn, the forced manure is mainly farmyard manure, and also uses fertilizers such as fire ash and oil cake; the fertilizer should be fully rotted and refined, and the applied surface should be removed, about 1 cm thick, and the amount of 1500-2000 kg per mu per time; if there is insufficient fertilizer, humus can be used Soil or soil mixed fertilizer replaces part. The amount of fertilization should increase year by year. Dry fertilizer should be spread from low to high during application, so as to avoid the fertilizer rolling down into piles or covering the leaves. At the upper part of the slope and the border is easy to be washed by rain, the fertility is poor, and should be applied more.
The rhizomes of Coptis chinensis grow upward and form stem nodes every year. In order to increase yield, the soil should be cultivated after top dressing in the second, third, and fourth autumn, and the humus soil should be collected nearby to be fined and then withdrawn on the border. Spread about 1 cm thick in the second and third years, called "Shanghua mud"; in the fourth year, about 1.5 cm thick, called "Shanghua mud". The soil must be uniform and not too thick, otherwise the rhizomes and stalks will be long, reducing the quality.
On the basis of topdressing fertilizer and mud, in order to increase production, the majority of farmers even apply chemical fertilizers after each weeding to promote their growth. Through comparative tests, the best ratio is 50 kg of superphosphate and 10 kg of ammonium carbonate per mu.
The main disease is powdery mildew, which should reduce the shading degree and increase the light, and it can be controlled by lime sulfur mixture. Insect pests include grubs, mole crickets, etc., which can be trapped with poison bait. In early spring, there are musk deer and golden pheasant as harm to flower moss and seeds. Fence should be surrounded to strengthen artificial killing and reduce harm.