The growth of Coptis chinensis has a great relationship with climate and soil, so it is necessary for us to understand the relationship between Coptis chinensis growth and the environment.
Our province's Weilian cultivation is distributed in the alpine mountain area at an altitude of 1200-1800 meters. The average annual average temperature is 8 -10 ℃, the monthly average temperature is not more than 23 ℃, the lowest is about minus 2 ℃, and the absolute minimum temperature is minus 8 Around ℃. Usually the first frost in mid and late October, the last frost in mid March, the frost period is about 150 days. The annual rainfall is more than 1000 mm, and it is foggy and humid, with an average relative humidity of about 85%.
The growth and development of Coptis chinensis firstly requires natural environment conditions with low temperature and high air humidity, and the most feared is high temperature and drought; secondly, it requires shaded natural environment conditions that cannot withstand strong sunlight, otherwise it will wither quickly. Therefore, cultivation of Coptis chinensis must be shaded. Coptis chinensis is shaded, but it cannot be overshadowed. If the shade is too large, Coptis chinensis grows weak and slender, and is susceptible to disease. The shading degree of Coptis chinensis is generally 60-80%. It should be small in high-altitude areas and slightly larger in low-altitude areas. When transplanting, the shading degree should be large. After survival, the shading degree should gradually decrease. The shade must be uniform, allowing sunlight to enter through the pores of the shade, so that the aerial parts of the plant can be evenly irradiated by sunlight, but not directly exposed to direct sunlight for a long time.
The distribution of Coptis chinensis is restricted by a certain altitude, but this restriction is not insurmountable. In recent years, with the development of Coptis chinensis production, some have cultivated Coptis chinensis in areas below 1000 meters above sea level. Also obtained a good yield. However, cultivation of Coptis chinensis in low-altitude areas must be based on the characteristics of low temperature, high humidity, and shade, etc., and it should be cultivated in a place with less sunshine, lower temperature, and more humidity, and maintain good shade.
For a long time, the cultivation of Coptis chinensis has used artificial scaffolding to create suitable shaded environmental conditions to ensure its growth and development. In recent years, experiments have promoted the use of natural forests and planted forests as shaded environmental conditions, and their growth and development have been relatively good.
Cultivated Coptis chinensis, the selection of soil is relatively strict. Coptis chinensis has a long growth period, many fibrous roots, and is distributed in the surface soil. It takes a long time to absorb nutrients from the surface soil. Therefore, the soil for cultivating Coptis chinensis should have good soil structure, loose and fertile soil, rich in organic matter, deep soil layer, good ventilation and water permeability. The texture of the soil is preferably loam, but clay is not suitable. The acidity and alkalinity of the soil should be slightly acidic to neutral. In the main production area, the soil for growing Coptis chinensis mainly includes yellow bubble mud, purple red mud and oily sand soil, and other soils are rarely used.
Coptis chinensis is not suitable for continuous cropping. In the past, many forests were destroyed and planted for wasteland, a large number of trees were destroyed, and the base for cultivating Coptis chinensis could not be fixed. In order to solve this problem, our field collaborated with Shizhu Huanglian Farm to conduct a research on the rotation of Huanglian crops, and initially found out the soil factors that hinder the growth of Huanglian. After Coptis chinensis was harvested, the crops of corn, potato, green manure were rotated for 2-3 years, and then Coptis chinensis was cultivated. The yield per acre could reach 130-200 kg, which reached the production level of "land reclamation" and solved the soil problem of continuous cropping. This rotation system has been promoted in production areas.
The topography of cultivated Coptis chinensis soil must be selected in the morning and evening with the oblique light of morning sun or evening sun mountain, preferably with a slight slope for drainage, but the slope should not exceed 30 degrees. Cultivate Coptis chinensis evenly, pay attention to drainage.